Unfortunately, no. The reason why this isn't a feature that we offer is because boards are designed to hold hundreds of pulses and having different column names would make things much more confusing.
However, we have come up with a solution that users absolutely love. What you can do is create a folder and move everything up a level. The original board should become the folder and each group will turn into a board. This will keep you organized, focused and allow you to customize everything how you want.